Jessicas Perception (1)
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Learn more. Support for organic farming is a promising policy for improving sustainability in the food sector. Further consumer demand, however, is hindered by high prices. We review research from to on the role of perceived price, income, price knowledge, willingness to pay, and reactions to price changes on organic food.
We find that price is the major perceived barrier to purchase. Income is only a partial explanatory factor and is superseded by psychographic variables. Price knowledge is vague, and organic consumers' price sensitivity is relatively lower than that of occasional or nonorganic consumers. The results suggest that further market differentiation in terms of organic consumer segments and food categories is necessary. Furthermore, we discuss detailed implications for public policy and practice and present a future research agenda.
Volume 51 , Issue 1. The full text of this article hosted at iucr. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. Journal of Consumer Affairs. Reviews and Commentary. Stephan Zielke Search for more papers by this author. Read the full text. Tools Request permission Export citation Add to favorites Track citation.
Fourteen-through month-old infants differentially imitate intentional and accidental actions. One-year-old infants use teleological representations of actions productively. Goal attribution without agency cues: A folk model of the mind.
Holland D, Quinn N, editors. Cultural models in language and thought. Shared representations between self and other: A social cognitive neuroscience view. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. Acquiring an understanding of design: Development of manipulatory skills and the deployment of attention.
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Gallese V, Goldman A. Mirror neurons and the simulation theory of mind-reading. Taking the intentional stance at 12 months of age. Functional anatomy of execution, mental simulation, observation and verb generation of action: The theory of event coding TEC: A framework for perception and action planning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences. The early origins of goal attribution in infancy. Foreign-language experience in infancy: Effects of short-term exposure and social interaction on phonetic learning.
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Rule learning by seven-month-old infants. Understanding the intentions of others: Re-enactment of intended acts by month-old children. Imitation as a mechanism of social cognition: Origins of empathy, theory of mind, and the representation of action. The optical information received by the eye is obviously the same regardless of how well golfers are playing, so do golfers really see the hole differently depending on their performance? And if so, is the effect due to their performance on that day or to their general abilities to play golf?
Either way, the results would suggest that the perceived capacity to successfully perform a goal-oriented action can influence how big the target looks. We recruited golfers after they played a round of golf and asked them to estimate the size of the hole. We also collected information on how well they played that day, and found correlations between performance and apparent hole size.
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All gave informed consent. Nine black paper circles were glued on to a piece of white poster board that was 76 cm wide and 51 cm tall with the smaller circles in the top left corner and the larger circles on the bottom right corner. The circles ranged unsystematically in size from 9 cm to 13 cm in diameter.
The actual size of a golf hole is After playing a full round of golf, players were recruited to participate in the experiment. They signed an informed consent agreement. Then they were shown the poster board with the various circles and asked to pick the circle that they thought best corresponded to the size of the hole.go
Multisensory perception processes and consumer behavior
Then, we collected information on their score for the course that day, their handicap, how many putts they took on the 18 th green, and how many strokes they took on the 18 th hole. For each of these measures, a lower score indicates better performance or ability. Handicap is a number computed in golf that is an assessment of a golfer's ability. It is calculated as the mean difference between a player's score minus the par score for the course. For example, a player who typically gets a 74 on courses with pars of 72 will have a handicap of 2.
Thus, lower handicaps signify better players. We also obtained three subjective reports on their performance. Participants rated their putting abilities compared to others with their handicap, putting on that day relative to their regular putting abilities, and play on that day relative to their regular playing abilities on a scale from 1 to 7, where a 1 meant that they had their best day and a 7 meant they had their worst day. Recall that a lower handicap signifies a better player. Combined, these results suggest that better players did not see the hole as being bigger, but players that were playing better on that given day did see the hole as bigger.
Apparent size of a golf hole as a function of score on the course that day. The circles on the y-axis are drawn to preserve relative size of the stimuli. The solid line is the correlation between course score and the circle selected as best matching the size of the hole. In this experiment, golfers who were playing better judged the size of the hole to be bigger, thus demonstrating another link between perception and performance. While we found a significant correlation between perception of hole size and golf performance on that day as assessed by course score , we did not find a significant correlation between perception of hole size and how good a player is as assessed by handicap.
This result implies that a highly skilled player such as Tiger Woods does not always see the hole as bigger just because he is a terrific player, but rather, any person can see the hole as being bigger on those days in which he or she is playing well. However, a non-significant correlation is difficult to interpret, and perhaps a significant correlation would have been found with more participants or a wider range of handicaps.
Future research should include a longitudinal study to see if perceived size changes for a player of a given handicap as performance levels rise and fall. We also found that apparent hole size was correlated with putting performance on the last hole but not with overall performance on the last hole suggesting that these effects are specific to the relevant task.
Finally, apparent size is not related to subjective measures of performance. Players who think they are playing better do not necessarily recall the hole as appearing bigger. The next two studies addressed this question.